Fauna and Flora
The Lousã mountain range, for the variety and extreme richness of its fauna and flora, is part of the Natura Network, a European network of protected sites that ensures biodiversity, conserving and restoring natural habitats, plants and wildlife in order to maintain the typical characteristics of sites.
National Ecological Reserve
Also included in the National Ecological Reserve is a basic and diversified biophysical structure that, through conditioning the use of areas with specific ecological characteristics, guarantees the protection of ecosystems and the permanence and intensification of the biological processes indispensable to the balanced framework of human activities.
Autochthonous vegetation: typically Mediterranean vegetation cover (Portuguese oak, cork oak, arbutus and odoriferous plants).
Man introduced vegetation: wild pine, wild pine, black pine, acacia, mimosa, Buçaco cedar, spruce, Atlas cedars, eucalyptus and diverse hardwoods.
Vegetation on the highest peaks and slopes of streams: bush formations (heaths, carquejais, gorges and giestais).
Birds: interesting from the point of view of the habitats: mountain streams, mixed forests, vegetable gardens and meadows near the villages. Duckweed, fawn-fawn, petrel of the fields, birds of prey (goshawk, hawk, round-winged eagle), owls, owls, spotted kestrels.
Mammals: The best time of day for your observation is sunrise or sunset.
Small size: ferret, gineto, fox, otter, rabbit, hare.
Large size: wild boar, corso, deer.
Amphibians: can be found under vegetation, in moist soil, in darker places. Lusitanian Salamander, Frog, Rela, Thirty.
Reptiles: class indispensable to existing ecosystems. They hibernate in the winter and can be seen in the sun on the hottest days. Cobra-bastarda, tortoise, lizard, sardanisca, osga, horned viper, water lizard.
Characteristics markedly Mediterranean.
Average annual temperatures:
Hot summers (20-22ºC)
Soft winters (9-11ºC)
Rain and snow frequent in autumn, winter and early spring (average annual precipitation between 1000-1800 mm).
Routes of the Serra da Lousã
"The shale villages, the mountains, the steep and narrow paths made up the landscape of the mountain people. By these old ways joined the villages scattered on the slopes of the mountain range, reached the cultivated terraces, the soutos, or the mills hidden in the meanders of the streams. By them he went down to the village to negotiate the coal produced in the mountains. "(In Quercus, 1996)
In the past, the roads were closely linked to the day-to-day lives of the mountain villages, as a means of communicating with neighboring populations and access to their sources of subsistence. The desertification led to the abandonment of the paths that took away their best maintenance: that of being walked. Today, some of these roads are still used by the few villagers, but hikers are the main agents in revitalizing these routes.
The routes through Serra da Lousã, through mountain villages can be done individually, but for a better interpretation of the space allowing a complete and pleasant experience, it is advisable to resort to companies in the area specializing in this type of activity.