Lousã is located in the transition zone between the two development dynamics that mark the sub-region: on the one hand, the land more 'urban', closer to the regional capital; on the other, the most remote, with a more 'rural' character.
It is soothes of a municipality with 138,40 km ² of area and 17 604 inhabitants (2011), subdivided in 4 parishes. The municipality is limited to the north by Vila Nova de Poiares, to the northeast by Arganil (in a few hundred meters), to the east by Góis, to the southeast by Castanheira de Pera, to the south by Figueiró dos Vinhos and to the west by Miranda do Corvo.
The first signs of human presence in Lousã date back to the "Lower Paleolithic" period, about half a million years ago.
Recently, dozens of sites have been discovered with artifacts in carved stone (namely bifaces, hand axes and large cortical flakes, attributed to the Acheulense industry).
These new archaeological sites and their artifacts provide new knowledge for the understanding of Prehistory in the county of Lousã and the groups of hunter gatherers who lived here.
Initially, we are told that the studied archaeological site of Quinta do Conde de Foz de Arouce is not an isolated case in the county of Lousã and that there are numerous parallels along the Rio Ceira, in the most diverse terraces and at different altitudes.
The collected artifacts show, through the history of research in Quinta do Conde de Foz de Arouce (see master's thesis "Contribution for the Study of the Prehistory of Vale do Ceira: The Lithic Industries of Quinta do Conde de Foz de Arouce") and of their study, which were functional objects used mainly for the discarding of wild animals.
Both large cortical flakes, such as hand axes and bifaces, are extremely effective decanting tools identified as being of the Acheulense culture.
Due to the size and weight of the artifacts, we can deduce that they were elaborated considering the large animals such as elephants (Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus and Palaeoloxodon antiquus), Rhinoceroses (Coelodonta antiquitatis and Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis), Hippopotamus antiquus) among other mega fauna pleistocénica already extinct and documented, during the period of elaboration of this technology, throughout the Iberian Peninsula, being an important source of subsistence for the hunter gatherers who wandered around.
These artifacts were not carried out by fully modern humans (Homo sapiens) but by a species of extinct hominid, which is found to be associated with this technological culture and has lasted for more than a million years, being the dominant technology during most of human evolution.
From the Roman period we find examples that prove it, like funeral remains, utensils of glass and metal, coins and even vestiges of Roman terrestrial communications. It is known that the zone of the valley of the river Ceira and in the Mountain range of Lousã there were mining explorations of metals like the gold.
Germanic and Muslim period
From the beginning of the Germanic invasions until 943 there is no more information; this year there is the memory of a treaty between Zuleima Abaiud and Abbot Mestúlio of the Monastery of Lorvão, and it mentions the place-name Arauz that is related to the Castle of Arouce.
Castle of Arouce (Castle of Lousã).
After the permanent conquest by the Kingdom of Leon of the city of Coimbra in 1064, the repopulation of the territory became more intense. Sesnando Davides is assigned the order to fortify and rebuild the buildings, among them the Castle of Arouce (Castle of Lousã). From the Moslem domain, there are several legends that explain the foundation of the Castle and others about the village. In 1151 King Afonso Henriques gave him a charter.
Modern and Contemporary Age
In 1513 he received a new charter by King Manuel I.
But it was in the eighteenth century when Lousã began to modernize, these advances put it at the forefront of other villages. The most striking episodes of this process were the arrival in 1906 of the train, thus improving terrestrial communications following the policy of innovation and development initiated by Minister Fontes Pereira de Melo and in 1924 the arrival of electricity. However, there were two pauses in this process which were the Napoleonic Wars in which in 1811 the Combat of Foz de Arouce took place (Foz de Arouce being a town in the county of Lousã), and the Portuguese Civil War, which made Portugal a backward country technologically and industrially vis-à-vis other European nations.
The old urban perimeter went from the end of the Mountain to where today it is more or less the city council, after century XIX it was spread throughout the basin of Lousã. In 1888 the hospital began to operate, the slaughterhouse in 1893, the old theater, the new main church in 1874, etc.